Vitamins and Minerals in COVID 19 Infections- Vitamin D, Zinc, Vitamin C

  • Dietary insufficiency of vitamins and minerals has been observed in high-risk groups of COVID-19 patients, such as the elderly, increasing the morbidity and risk of mortality (Grant W.B., 2020).  It appears pertinent to ensure adequate, if not elevated intake of key vitamins and minerals in people both at risk of, and suffering from COVID-19. A brief review of importance of few is highlighted.
  • The evidences in support of vitamin D promoting lung immunity are widely available. Vitamin D insufficiency has been linked to increased risk of infections, in particular viral respiratory tract infection, tuberculosis, obstructive lung diseases like asthma and COPD (HandsdottirSif, 2011).

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  • Zinc is essential for the integrity of the immune system. The immunomodulatory and antiviral activities of zinc have made this mineral and its ionophores candidates against COVID-19 (Brewer J, 2020).
  • Vitamin C may be an adjuvant to ARDS, reduce the deleterious consequences of sepsis associated with acute pulmonary dysfunction, and reduce the incidence of pneumonia by ~80%. Moreover, vitamin C may modulate the cytokine storm, characterized by high levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-6, resulting in increased risk of respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation in patients with COVID-19 (de Melo AF, 2020)
  • Studies demonstrate that zinc and vitamins C and D are integral parts of the immune system and show synergistic functions at various stages of the host defenses, such as the maintenance of the integrity of biological barriers and the functionality of cells that make up the innate and adaptive systems. The deficiency or insufficiency of these key nutrients, acting in synergy making them more susceptible to pathogen entry, such as SARS-CoV-2 (João J, 2020). Supplementation of adequate dosage of vitamins D, C and zinc may have a positive effect during COVID-19 infection.

Please always ensure to check with your Doctor / Healthcare / GP before starting with any new medication or therapy.

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  1. Brewer J, G. M. (2020). Potential interventions for SARS-CoV-2 infections: zinc showing promise. Journal of Medical Virology , doi: 10.1002/jmv.26523. [Epub ahead of print].
  2. de Melo AF, H.-d.-M. M. (2020). High-dose intravenous vitamin C may help in cytokine storm in severe SARS-CoV-2 infection. Critical Care , 24:500.
  3. Grant W.B., L. H. ( 2020). Evidence that vitamin D supplementation could reduce risk of influenza and COVID-19 infections and deaths. Nutrients, 12(4):988.
  4. HandsdottirSif, M. M. (2011). Vitamin D effects on lung immunity and respiratory . Vitamin and Hormones , 86: 217–237. João J, R. S. (2020). Zinc, Vitamin D and Vitamin C: Perspectives for COVID-19 With a Focus on Physical Tissue Barrier Integrity. Frontiers in Nutrition , 295

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