Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children

  • Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a condition where different body parts can become inflamed, including the heart, lungs, kidneys, brain, skin, eyes, or gastrointestinal organs. Children with MIS-C may have a fever and various symptoms, including abdominal (gut) pain, vomiting, diarrhea, neck pain, rash, bloodshot eyes, or feeling extra tired.
  • MIS-C is a most devastating complications of COVID-19.1 Despite of low susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection, especially those younger than 14 years, children are still at risk of infection.2 After few months of pandemic, children presenting with a life threatening, hyper inflammatory syndrome, named Kawasaki like syndrome.1

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  • The pathogenesis of MIS-C is still unknown. It has been suggested that this syndrome occurs while the immune system is activated against the SARS-CoV2 virus.3 The host immune system in pediatric patients responses excessively to SARS-CoV-2 infections and lead to the multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MISC).4 After 4 weeks of initial infection, MIS-C shows various symptoms.4
  • The development of prognostic biomarkers and more importantly the implementation of new treatment modalities would have a significant impact in clinical practice regarding the outcome of MIS-C. Vitamin D could be a potential candidate. The vitamin D assessed not only as a biomarker also as a nutritional supplement.1
  • It summarized that vitamin D levels could be valuable in predicting severe forms of MIS-C and correction of abnormal levels in severe MIS-C may influences its evolution. By supplementation of vitamin D3 reducing the severity of MIS-C in certain circumstances.1

Please always ensure to check with your Doctor / Healthcare / GP before starting with any new medication or therapy.

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1.       Feketea G, Vlacha V, Bocsan IC, Vassilopoulou E, Stanciu LA and Zdrenghea M (2021) Vitamin D in Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Related Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C). Front. Immunol. 12:648546. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2021.648546.

2.       Viner RM, Mytton OT, Bonell C, Melendez-Torres GJ, Ward J, Hudson L, et al. Susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection among children and adolescents compared with adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA Pediatr. (2020)175:143–56. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2020.4573.

3.       Licciardi F, Baldini L, Denina M, Ricotti E, Covizzi C, Dellepiane M, et al. Peculiar immunophenotypic signature in MIS-C affected children. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. (2020). doi: 10.1111/pai.13434.

4.       Ahmed M, Advani S, Moreira A, Zoretic S, Martinez J, Chorath K, et al. Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children: a systematic review. EClinMed. (2020) 26:100527. doi: 10.1016/j.eclinm.2020. 100527.

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